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Whole Leaf Tobacco

Bulgarian Varieties

istanbulin

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#1
Bulgarian (oriental) tobacco growing areas are generally located in the southern side of the country near to Greece and Turkish border ( like Kardzhali (especially Dzhebel, Krumovgrad towns), Plovidv, Haskovo areas and etc.)

Especially Dzhebel (or Djebel or Cebel in Turkish) variety is known as Xanthi Djebel (in some sources) which is growing in the area of Dzhebel town. Bulgarian otorities certificated (or patented) them as Basma Djebel, although names look different they're same strains.

djebel.JPG

If we look the tobacco growing areas (both in Greece and Bulgaria) they're both located in Rhodope Mountains' area.

rodop.JPG

The Dzhebel (Djebel) town which gives the name of the tobacco "Djebel" is a town in Kardzhali Province. Kardzhali (Kırcaali in Turkish) has a really dominant Turkish population %61, in the town of Djebel (Cebel) this ratio is %99.

Coat of arms of the Dzhebel. (a tobacco leaf in the lower left corner)




Basma Djebel 1

History of this variety is based on individual team of local populations in Vodenicharsko village in Djebel town. This is a "Basma" type variety with cone type plant about 85 to 100 cm height. Leaf count varies between 28 to 33. Leaf shape is oval (ovate) with medium tapered tip. Size of the 14th leaf (which is located in the 3.ana (3rd main leaf group)) is 15 cm in lenght and 8-9 cm in width. Leaves are curly, hairy and very sticky. Color of petals are pale pink. Maturity time of the plant is 50 days. Dried tobacco has deep orange to orange-red color with glossy, medium density, thin texture. It has a typical oriental flavor, delicious taste and burns well. Nicotine content is generally low.

jebel-basma-1.jpg



Basma Djebel 2

History of this variety is based on individual team of local populations in Dolno Cossacks, Djebel. This "Basma" type tobacco has a cone type plant with 75 to 85 cm height. Leaf count is about 28-30 per plant. Leaf is 14-15 cm in lenght and 7-8 cm in width. Leaves are curly, hairy and very sticky. Color of petals are pale pink. Maturity time of the plant is 40 to 42 days. Dried tobacco leaf is orange to orange-red colored glossy, soft and elastic. Gives a pleasant aroma with a medium body.

jebel-basma-2.jpg



Basma 13

"Basma" type tobacco has a cone type plant with 80 to 85 cm height. Leaf count is average 28 per plant. Leaf is 14-15 cm in lenght and 8 cm in width. Leaves are very curly, hairy and sticky. Color of petals are pale pink. Maturity time of the plant is 38 to 40 days. Dried tobacco leaf is yellow to yellow-orange colored glossy, soft and elastic. Gives a pleasant aroma with good taste. This variety has very similar characteristics with Djebel types.

basma-13.jpg



Srednogorska Yaka

This ​variety is also a basma type tobacco. This one is derived with crossing of Krumovgrad 90 with Elena Krumovgrad 817 and 988. Shape of the plant is elliptical with a height of 120 to 135 cm. Average leaf count is 28 to 33 per plant. Leaf shape is broad elliptic. Leaf is generally curled between secondary veins. Leaf sizes are bigger in this variety so this can be called "başıbağlı". 14th leaf's size is 25 cm in lenght and 14 cm in width. Petals are pale pink. Maturity time is 60-65 days. Dried leaves are meaty, medium dense, yellow-orange to orange colored. Chemical composition; nicotine from 1.10 to 1.30 %; soluble carbohydrates 13-15 %; nitrogen varies from 1.7 to 1.9 %. This variety provides a very good full flavor. (This variety seems to be replaced of Krumovgrad varieties)

srednogorska-yaka.jpg



Kozarsko 339

This variety created with intervarietal hybridization with Kozarsko 541 and Plovdiv 50 (we'll discuss Plovdiv below). A basma type, elliptical shaped plant with a height of 135 to 145 cm. Average leaf count is 30-33 per plant. Levaes are elliptical and smooth, leaf edges are also smooth. Leaf size (14th leaf) is 24 cm in lenght and 12 cm im width. Patels are pale pink. Maturity period is 60-65 days. Dried leaves are meaty, medium yellow-orange to deep red colored. Chemical composition; nicotine from 0.90 to 1.20 %, soluble carbohydrates 13-15 %, nitrogen 1.7 to 1.9 %. Has a very good flavor, fullness and saturation effect with a clear fragrance.

kozarsko-339.jpg



Plovdiv 380

Created using the intervarietal hybridization with parental forms and cultivars of Plovdiv 7 and Ustinsko (discussed below). A basma varietyç Shape of the plant is elliptical. Height is varies between 135 to 150cm. Average leaf number per plant is 33. Leaves are elliptical. The leaf is smooth with smooth edges. Size of the 14th leaf is 24 cm in lenght and 12 cm in width. Petals pale pink.Maturity time is 60-65 dyas. Dried leaves are meaty, medium thick with orange to red color. Chemical composition; nicotine 1.10 to 1.30 %, soluble carbohydrates 10 to 17 %, total nitrogen 7 %. Provides a pleasent and intense flavor.

plovdiv-380.jpg



Ustina 54

This variety is obtained using the individual team grown in the past Ustinsko local variety. A basma type variety. Shape of the plant is elliptical. The height is 108-120 cm. Average number of leaves per plant is 28-30. The leaf is smooth, medium thick, smooth edged. 14th leaf size is 26/12 cm. Petals pale pink. Maturity time is 58-59 days. Dried leaves are average to medium dense yellow-orange to orange colored. Chemical composition; nicotine 1.00 to 1.20 %, soluble carbohydrates 10 to 15 %, total nitrogen 7 %. Has a typical oriental flavor.

ustina-54.jpg



Burley 1344

This one is not an oriental variety but Bulgarian authorities patented this variety.
Created using the intervarietal hybridization with parental forms of Burley 21, Burley 2115 and Kentucky 35. Shape of the plant is cylindrical with a height of 150 to 165 cm. Average number of leaves per plant is 28-29. Leaf size of the 13rd-14th leaf is 70/30 cm. Petals are pink. 60-65 days to maturity. Dried leaves are medium dense to dense, elastic with brown to reddish color. Chemical composition; nicotine 3.10 to 3.30 %, soluble carbohydrates 0.65 to 0.90 %, total nitrogen 3.7 %, ash 18.6 %, ammonia 0.29 % and chlorine 0.32 %.

barley-1344.jpg
 

deluxestogie

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Excellent article, Emre. Thanks.

I have unsuccessfully searched for Djebel seed for the past two years. I was unaware that there were two different types of Djebel. The Djebel 1 & 2 that you show are clearly distinct from one another.

I recently read through Skychaser's list of 70+ varieties from the Ukraine, most of which were unfamiliar to me. So many varieties. So little time. But I'm still searching for Djebel (now 1 and 2), as well as Prilep (Macedonian).

Bob
 

istanbulin

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Here is an interview with a former tobacco farmer in Kardzhali, Bulgaria. As he said, most tobacco farmers started to quit growing tobacco. IMO, this situation is same in all over the world.

(Video is in Bulgarian but there's a subtitles section in the lower right side of the video window, you can select language.)

 

rainmax

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Excellent article, Emre. Thanks.

I have unsuccessfully searched for Djebel seed for the past two years. I was unaware that there were two different types of Djebel. The Djebel 1 & 2 that you show are clearly distinct from one another.

I recently read through Skychaser's list of 70+ varieties from the Ukraine, most of which were unfamiliar to me. So many varieties. So little time. But I'm still searching for Djebel (now 1 and 2), as well as Prilep (Macedonian).

Bob
I'm obligated to find at least Macedonian Prilep. Finally, this is my Country. I already contacted tobacco institute in Prilep and waiting for them to replay.
Screen Shot 2013-02-27 at 2.12.36 AM.png

Amazing this plant. It's about 90 cm tall and has more than 50 leaves.
 

rainmax

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I also cal my friend who is in Macedonia already and ask him to do me a favour. He is coming back to Slovenija in two weeks.
We will found it don't worry. If not for this season, next for shore. I want it too.
Prilep
Prilep P12-2/1
Prilep P23
Prilep NS-72
Prilep NS-84
Prilep P-84
 

istanbulin

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Maks,

I also found a Prilep seed here. We may compare them this year (or later). A tobacco company brought the seeds here to see if they'll grow properly. In 2010 they planted approx. 60 acres of Prilep to see the quality (Bob, you know Mutki, farmers will grow Prilep in Mutki at least in 250 acres this year). A friend of mine will send me some seeds soon.

Here's a photo of Prilep tobaccos grown in Mutki.

 

deluxestogie

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Interesting. The leaf margins are rippled, and the blossoms appear to be white. I wonder why they are growing Prilep in Mutki. Is there a strong market for Prilep in particular?

Bob
 

istanbulin

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I saw a lot of pictures of Xanthi Yaka, Djebel and Prilep and I think this three varieties morphologically resemble eachother. Actually, the draw is rippled leaf margins and pale pinkish flowers for all of them. I couln't see any information in Ars-Grin about Prilep (?).

Why they're growing it ? I don't have the actual answer but there's nothing about improving tobacco farming in EU's agricultural programme and also EU is inducing farmers to give up tobacco production (Actually Macedonia is not an EU member but also is not a big producer). In the otherside, in Mutki, farmers have forgot old tobacco varieties (like Mutki variety) because companies never buy them ever. Prilep may be a "brand" variety for the company which made contracts with farmers to grow the tobacco. I think that company found a big market for Prilep.
I just thought loudly about the growing issue, not sure of course.

EDIT: Prilep leaf photo from a Macedonian tobacco company (see the leaf margins).

 

deluxestogie

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From Yugoslavia. Seeds presented by the Tobacco Institute, Belgrade. Received
May 25, 1955.
Pi 225977. Prilep No. 2, Grown in Macedonia and Serbia.
GRIN: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/acc/display.pl?1181506
Classed as Hungarian!

From United States. Seed held by Tobacco Laboratory, Plant Genetics and
Germplasm Institute, Beltsville, Maryland. Received October 22,1975.
Pi 405612. T.I. 1325. 'Prilep'. Yugoslavia.
GRIN: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/acc/display.pl?1305544
Classed as Oriental.

Judging from the Observation data, these two Prilep accessions are very different plants, in alkaloid content as well as plant height and leaf size.

Bob
 

istanbulin

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Thanks.

...
Judging from the Observation data, these two Prilep accessions are very different plants, in alkaloid content as well as plant height and leaf size.
Bob
*also the leaf structure; 405612 (Prilep) is wavy, 225977 (Prilep No.2) not. If Maks find the seeds, we should compare them well.
 

deluxestogie

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In a somewhat sketchy study done by folks at the Prilep Tobacco Institute, they demonstrate a rough tree of the genetic similarity of 10 varieties grown in Macedonia. Really, just about all it can conclude is that the Prilep varieties are more similar to the two tested Yaka varieties and to Djebel than to the Virginia and Burley varieties tested.


Djebel 1, Prilep P12-2/1, Prilep P-23, Prilep P66-9/7, Prilep P-80pt, Yaka Jb-125/3,
Yaka Jk-48, NS-72, Virginia MV-1 and Burley B-2/93


Davalieva K , Maleva I, et al.: Genetic Variability of Macedonian Tobacco Varieties Determined by Microsatellite Marker Analysis, ISSN 1424-2818, www.mdpi.com/journal/diversity.

A significant shortcoming of their method is that they ****genize whole green leaf to obtain DNA fragments. This process makes it impossible to distinguish between nuclear DNA, derived from both parental plants, from mitochondrial DNA, derived solely from the maternal parent. It's like blenderizing the populations of Alabama and Virginia to see how closely related the fragments of people are to one another.

Bob

NOTE: The word obliterated by the ill-conceived obscenity filter is a process usually performed on milk, to prevent the cream from separating.
 

istanbulin

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Bob, they also isolated DNA from the seeds (for each tobacco variety, 2 DNA samples were isolated: one from seeds and one from leaves.). It's possible to examine nDNA from embryo (so seed), also this is the only way, nearly.

BTW, there's an interesting point in the introduction section;

"Oriental (Macedonian) varieties are divided into three sub-groups: Prilep, Yaka and Djebel. Prilep varieties are derived from the local variety Djumaj-bale from Upper Djumaja (Republic of Bulgaria) and were introduced in Macedonia in the 30 s of the last century. Yaka varieties originate from Xanthian Yaka (Xanthy, Greece), which was derived from Cuban large-leaf local variety. They were introduced in Macedonia in the first half of the last century. Djebel varieties descend from cultivated Xanthian Yaka in the Djebel region, in the Republic of Bulgaria."

Again; "Xanthi Yaka was derived from Cuban large-leaf local variety", interesting. ​Another paper issue.
 

deluxestogie

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"Xanthi Yaka was derived from Cuban large-leaf local variety",
I have to wonder how they would substantiate that assertion. My understanding is that Xanthi Yaka was growing as a distinct variety in the middle of the 19th century, and was likely developed at least 100 years before that. If they claim that to be true based on the phylogenetic trees that have been published, then it's just not credible.

Bob
 

istanbulin

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... If they claim that to be true based on the phylogenetic trees that have been published, then it's just not credible.

Agreed with that but all people agreed that first plants were introduced from that region to Balkans.

I saw this thesis in different references, as they said Xanthi Yaka and İzmir came from Antilles. So Cuba is an island in Greater Antilles. I think it may be but should be proven.
 

Knucklehead

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A significant shortcoming of their method is that they ****genize whole green leaf to obtain DNA fragments.
Bob

NOTE: The word obliterated by the ill-conceived obscenity filter is a process usually performed on milk, to prevent the cream from separating.
Sir - try spaces like this: h-o-m-o-genize.
 

deluxestogie

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Yes. This is all a fuzzy area of history. I guess the crux of it is what is meant by "large-leafed Cuban" tobacco. During the early days of European colonization of the Antilles, Central America and South America, species of tobacco had yet to be defined. Generally tobacco was divided into small leaf (what later was named N. rustica) and large leaf (later named N. tabacum). Meso America tended to be the sources of N. rustica, while the many N. tabacum varieties had already been dispersed from South America to the Antilles at the time of Columbus' arrival.

To add to the confusion, as late as 1912, the "variety" then known as Vuelta Abajo was still a mix of a dozen or more locally grown Cuban varieties, since the growers had not yet adopted suitable isolation methods, and were purchasing transplants from unskilled regional seedling producers.
(Hasselbring H: Types of Cuban Tobacco. Botanical Gazette, Vol 53, No 2 (Feb 1912). pp 113-126. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2467668)

What does large-leaf Cuban tobacco mean?
  1. maybe just some unspecified Nicotiana tabacum variety, transported by Spanish (Cuban) traders to the Ottoman Empire
  2. some unspecified N. tabacum variety from anywhere in the Antilles or South America, and simply called "Spanish" = "Cuban" (even though the traders may have been Portuguese or Dutch) to distinguish it from the N. rustica that was also arriving during the same period.
  3. some unspecified N. tabacum variety that actually came from Cuba
  4. some particularly large-leafed variety of any of the above
  5. some particularly small-leafed variety of 1 through 3.

I've searched quite a bit for historical details of the early sourcing of tobacco seed varieties to most of the world, but there doesn't seem to be a lot out there.

Bob
 
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