Whole Leaf Tobacco

List of non-tobacco ingredients in cigarette tobacco

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FmGrowit

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This list is courtesy British-American Tobacco Company. It is in no way meant to suggest you use any of these, nor does it suggest these ingredients are in all cigarettes.

The purpose of this post is to capture a physical record of the ingredients used in the manufacture of cigarettes. If you're missing the flavor you've come to expect from your home grown tobacco, some of these ingredients will likely help achieve the taste you're looking for.

Don't let the names of the ingredients scare you...most of them are quite harmless. Locating some of these ingredients might be something of a challenge though.

IngredientCAS NumberFEMACoEFunctionMaximum Use (mg)Maximum Use (%)
Acetic acid64-19-720062Flavouring0.001550.00018
Acetoin513-86-02008749Flavouring0.001300.00018
Acetophenone98-86-22009138Flavouring0.001460.00021
Acetyl pyrazine22047-25-231262286Flavouring0.000050.00001
Ambroxide3738-00-9
6790-58-5
3471-Flavouring0.000020.00001
Apple juice/concentrate--386Flavouring0.069700.01204
Apricot extract68650-44-2-368Flavouring0.006870.00119
Balsam oil, peru8007-00-92117298Flavouring0.039800.00418
Benzaldehyde100-52-72127101Flavouring0.001040.00012
Benzoin gum sumatra9000-05-92133439Flavouring0.031840.00335
Benzyl benzoate120-51-42138262Flavouring0.002030.00029
Benzyl butyrate103-37-72140277Flavouring0.000990.00012
Benzyl carbinol60-12-8285868Flavouring0.000190.00002
Benzyl cinnamate103-41-32142331Flavouring0.000010.00001
Buchu leaf oil68650-46-4216985Flavouring0.000930.00009
Butyric acid (n-)107-92-622215Flavouring0.003750.00044
Cane sugar extract90604-30-1--Flavouring0.000150.00002
Caramel8028-89-52235-Flavouring0.034690.00600
Cardamom seed oil8000-66-62241180Flavouring0.000730.00008
Carob bean extract84961-45-52243120Flavouring0.112640.01946
Carob gum9000-40-22648120Flavouring0.020640.00287
Caryophyllene (beta-)87-44-522522118Flavouring0.012640.00176
Cassia bark oil8007-80-52258131Flavouring0.000200.00003
Cinnamic acid621-82-9228822Flavouring0.000200.00003
Citric acid77-92-9
5949-29-1
230620Flavouring0.000100.00002
Clary sage oil8016-63-5
84775-83-7
2321415Flavouring0.001860.00021
Cocoa extract84649-99-0-452Flavouring0.173970.03005
Cocoa powder95009-22-6-452Flavouring0.261440.02969
Cocoa shell extract84649-99-0-452Flavouring0.083100.01056
Coffee extract93348-12-0
68916-18-7
84650-00-0
8001-67-0
-148Flavouring0.009020.00099
Coriander seed oil8008-52-42334154Flavouring0.004200.00045
Damascenone (beta-)23726-93-4
23696-85-7
3420-Flavouring0.000930.00009
Davana oil8016-03-3
91844-86-9
235969Flavouring0.000190.00002
Decalactone (delta-)705-86-22361621Flavouring0.000270.00004
Diethyl malonate105-53-323752106Flavouring0.004510.00052
Dimethyl-1,2-cyclopentadione (3,4-)13494-06-932682234Flavouring0.000030.00001
Dimethyldihydrofuranolone (2,5-)3658-77-33174536Flavouring0.001270.00018
Dimethyl pyrazine (2,5-)123-32-032722210Flavouring0.000090.00001
Ethyl acetate141-78-62414191Flavouring0.001350.00019
Ethyl butyrate105-54-42427264Flavouring0.037090.00405
Ethyl cinnamate103-36-62430323Flavouring0.000390.00006
Ethyl hexanoate123-66-02439310Flavouring0.003220.00038
Ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(5h)-furanone(5-)698-10-231532300Flavouring0.000010.00001
Ethyl isovalerate108-64-52463442Flavouring0.004950.00057
Ethyl maltol4940-11-83487692Flavouring0.003230.00038
Ethyl-2-methyl pyrazine (3-)15707-23-03155548Flavouring0.001270.00018
Ethyl-3,[5 or 6]-dimethyl pyrazine (2-)13925-07-0
13360-65-1
3149, 3150727Flavouring0.000290.00004
Ethyl salicylate118-61-62458432Flavouring0.000330.00004
Fenugreek extract84625-40-12485460Flavouring0.065330.01129
Fig extract--198Flavouring0.013340.00231
Geraniol106-24-1250760Flavouring0.000110.00002
Geranium oil8000-46-2
90082-51-2
2508324Flavouring0.000650.00008
Geranyl butyrate106-29-62512274Flavouring0.000390.00006
Glucose50-99-7
5996-10-1
--Flavouring0.003110.00044
Glucose syrup8029-43-4
68131-37-3
--Flavouring0.063190.00877
Glycerol56-81-52525-Flavouring0.144430.02495
Hexalactone (gamma-)695-06-725562254Flavouring0.000200.00003
Hexanoic acid142-62-125599Flavouring0.003220.00038
Hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone(4-(para-)5471-51-22588755Flavouring0.000050.00001
Ionone (beta-)14901-07-6
79-77-6
8013-90-9
2595142Flavouring0.000020.00001
Irone (alpha-)79-69-62597145Flavouring0.000010.00001
Isoamyl acetate123-92-22055214Flavouring0.009280.00102
Isoamyl isovalerate659-70-12085458Flavouring0.005190.00057
Isobutyl phenylacetate102-13-622102160Flavouring0.001270.00018
Isobutyraldehyde78-84-2222092Flavouring0.003490.00041
Isobutyric acid79-31-222226Flavouring0.001960.00028
Isovaleric acid503-74-231028Flavouring0.005190.00057
Lactic acid598-82-3
50-21-5
26114Flavouring0.128870.01487
Licorice extract, fluid68916-91-6
84775-66-6
2628218Flavouring0.271550.04690
Licorice extract, powder68916-91-6
84775-66-6
2629218Flavouring0.607230.07212
Linalool78-70-6263561Flavouring0.000020.00001
Linalyl acetate115-95-72636203Flavouring0.000200.00003
Lovage extract8016-31-72650261Flavouring0.000600.00011
Mace oil8007-12-32653296Flavouring0.003620.00038
Maltol118-71-82656148Flavouring0.004100.00050
Menthol89-78-1
2216-51-5
15356-60-2 (D-)
1490-04-6
266563Flavouring0.080590.00841
Methoxy benzaldehyde (para-)123-11-52670103Flavouring0.000020.00001
Methoxybenzenemethanol (4-)105-13-5209966Flavouring0.004350.00051
Methoxy-3-methyl pyrazine (2 or 5 or 6-)68378-13-2
2847-30-5
31832266Flavouring0.003490.00041
Methyl butyraldehyde (3-)590-86-3269294Flavouring0.001270.00018
Methyl butyric acid (2-)116-53-026952002Flavouring0.001270.00018
Methyl cinnamate103-26-42698333Flavouring0.003220.00038
Methyl cyclopentenolone765-70-8
80-71-7
2700758Flavouring0.006280.00109
Methyl pyrazine (2-)109-08-033092270Flavouring0.000820.00008
Methyl-2-pyrrolyl ketone1072-83-93202-Flavouring0.000020.00001
Methyl quinoxaline (5-)13708-12-832032271Flavouring0.000010.00001
Molasses, sugar cane68476-78-8
8052-35-5
-2100Flavouring0.023360.00210
Nutmeg oil8008-45-52793296Flavouring0.001860.00021
Olibanum oil8016-36-2281693Flavouring0.000020.00001
Orange oil, distilled68606-94-02821143Flavouring0.001860.00021
Orange oil, sweet8008-57-9
8028-48-6
2825143Flavouring0.000020.00001
Peppermint oil8006-90-42848282Flavouring0.032910.00583
Peppermint oil, terpeneless68606-97-32848282Flavouring0.037350.00750
Phenethyl isobutyrate103-48-02862302Flavouring0.000030.00001
Phenyl acetic acid103-82-22878672Flavouring0.003230.00038
Phenylcarbinol100-51-6213758Flavouring0.063190.00877
Piperonal120-57-02911104Flavouring0.006630.00115
Potassium sorbate590-00-12921-Flavouring0.012640.00176
Propylidene phthalide (3-)17369-59-42952494Flavouring0.000010.00001
Prune extract90082-87-4-371Flavouring0.008290.00144
Prune extract, oleoresin90082-87-4-371Flavouring0.005900.00083
Prune juice/concentrate90105-94-5-371Flavouring0.103720.01792
Raisin extract68915-86-6
85594-37-2
-485Flavouring0.002230.00025
Sorbitol50-70-43029-Flavouring0.357330.03453
Spearmint oil8008-79-5
84696-51-5
3032285Flavouring0.017790.00358
Sugar, invert8013-17-0--Flavouring0.727870.07903
Tetramethyl pyrazine (2,3,5,6-)1124-11-43237734Flavouring0.000090.00001
Trimethyl pyrazine (2,3,5-)14667-55-13244735Flavouring0.000390.00006
Undecalactone (delta-)710-04-33294688Flavouring0.003230.00038
Undecalactone (gamma-)104-67-63091179Flavouring0.001460.00021
Valerian root extract8057-49-6
97927-02-1
3099473Flavouring0.002700.00025
Valerian root oil8008-88-63100473Flavouring0.000690.00008
Vanilla oleoresin8023-78-73106474Flavouring0.003770.00042
Vanillin121-33-53107107Flavouring0.040790.00443
Veratraldehyde120-14-93109106Flavouring0.000390.00006
Ylang ylang oil8006-81-33119103Flavouring0.000020.00001
 

johnlee1933

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Interesting.

Question: The "Maximum Use" columns give weight and percentage. I tied to reverse calculate but had no cigarette to weigh. Is it weight per cigarette, pound or what?

John
 

Chicken

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wow, i had no idea, they used that much,,, flavoring ingredients,

i like my baccy, straight,
 

FmGrowit

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Mg's per cigarette would make sense. You'd have to calculate the number of cigarettes per pound of tobacco and then per ton and multiply that number by the quantity listed for that ingredient to get any sense of quantity used.

This appears to be is a list of all ingredients used in all tobacco products produced by B.A.T. I'd imagine the Sorbbital is used in wet snuff and obviously, menthol would not be used in non-menthol cigarettes.
 

Chicken

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i wonder if that is the reason a branded cigg. say a marlboro,

has the same taste, because we all know the baccy isnt exactlly the same, each year,

yet the flavour of the cigg. is the same, perhaps the nicotene, comes from the baccy alone, and im sure thru this process any flavorings the baccy may have had, is lost,,,

very informational thread,, this one is
 

johnlee1933

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OK I did some homework. 1 lb.=453.6gm. The tobacco in a standard 100MM. filtered cig is .9gm. This meant a pound of tobacco is right slose to 500 cigs (2 1/2 cartons). So if we look at menthol (one of the heavier weight additives) we get 500 X .08059=40.29mg.. And menthol is one of the heavier additives.

It seems Don, once again, is correct. For the average small grower these additives are impractical except perhaps as thet impact the health issues.

John
 

FmGrowit

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i wonder if that is the reason a branded cigg. say a marlboro,

has the same taste, because we all know the baccy isnt exactlly the same, each year,

yet the flavour of the cigg. is the same, perhaps the nicotene, comes from the baccy alone, and im sure thru this process any flavorings the baccy may have had, is lost,,,

very informational thread,, this one is

This is exactly why there is no mention of flavor on any commercial grower site. Flavor has all been bred out of tobacco so the big boys can maintained their brand flavor by introducing it during processing of the cured tobacco. It all goes back to the store bought vs. Home grown tomato analogy.

There is little doubt heirloom varieties will become trendy as big gubmint continues to strangle big baccy. There will be a day in the very near future when most of the above additive will be banned from being used in commercial tobacco sales.

Don't get me wrong...some of these additives can be very leasing on the palate and I'm not suggesting there is anything wrong with using them if you so desire...It's nice to have a steak every now and then between bologna samigges.
 

SmokeStack

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As a chemist, I find the list of those chemicals intriguing. Isoamyl acetate is essentially synthetic banana oil. Ethyl salicylate is used as synthetic wintergreen oil. Most of the chemicals on the list are synthetic versions of natural flavorings - that is, they are artificial flavorings. You see a lot of them in candy. The synthetic chemicals are stable and have a long shelf life than many naturally derived flavorings. Also, they are much cheaper to make in a lab than to extract natural flavorings from nature. Strange that I use protective gloves and a lab coat to handle some of those chemicals. But phenyl acetic acid (PAA)? Smells like someone has serious body odor issues - as if someone hadn't taken a bath for a month. We had a student in the lab who dropped a small bottle of PAA that shattered. Our lab smelled horrible for several weeks! Well, that's my two cents.
 

FmGrowit

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Well, that's my two cents.

Sorry, you're not getting out of it that easily.

So is PAA to tobacco flavoring as musk oil is to perfume?

What are the drawbacks of using a natural oil during an extended aging period over using a synthetic equivalent?

What would a rough translation of a synthetic derivative by weight be to natural derivative by weight?...my guess is there isn't one.

Sorry Doc, but this is a community and everyone is expected to contribute their expertise...and not get paid for it ;)...kind of like communism and Obama-ism...
(sorry...couldn't resist.)

but...I'm still the Dick Tater
 

SmokeStack

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Well, FmGrowit, I am glad to hear of your interest in chemistry.:) As far as PAA is concerned, I doubt that it is used as a flavoring unless it is added in near trace amounts. When someone dropped a bottle of PAA in our lab, we could still smell it for weeks later - even after having professional chemical spill specialists clean our lab! But chemicals can take on different odors depending on the amount that's in the air. For example, I had to synthesize isoamyl acetate for a lab experiment. It smells like banana oil when you take a good whiff of it straight from a flask, but, diluted in air, a gentle waft smells like pears.

The drawbacks of using a natural oil during an extended aging period over using a synthetic equivalent are... most (not all) natural products tend to decompose more readily as mother nature tends to produce molecules that are more complex and, thus, more susceptible to alteration. Synthetic compounds are much simpler in comparison and can endure a longer lifespan. So I would imagine that in general the aroma of tobacco flavored with natural products will fade away faster than with their synthetic counterparts, but it may take a few years for this to occur. To avoid this problem, I would add the flavoring to tobacco as the last step - I would flavor it after the aging process. After adding flavorings, you can let the tobacco sit for a month or so to allow the flavors to marry. In my opinion, I would never use synthetics - they just aren't the same - but they are MUCH CHEAPER!


As far as synthetic equivalents, yes - you are right, there are none. Extracts from natural products can vary - it depends on several factors. I worked for a chemical company which extracted pigments from paprika peppers to be used as natural food colorings. Each crop coming from the same seed produced a slightly different color. In fact, the subject of my research was to develop a methodology so that we could get a consistent color. A benefit of using synthetics is that it always gives the same results.

I rarely (pipe) smoke tobacco with flavorings - tobacco produces its own beautiful flavors. But I do formulate a blend using a hint of natural Cypress Tree extract. The extract costs about $80 for 50 mL (about 1.6 ounces!) so it is quite expensive. Most big tobacco companies would never use the extract since you can buy a gallon of the synthetic equivalent for the same price.

The bottom line is... if you want to flavor on a small scale, then use natural products and extracts. All kinds are readily available on the web - just do a Google search - you can find everything from menthol to clove extract, frankincense, etc. I don't think the lifespan is a big issue. Anyway, you would need a special permit to buy some of those chemicals on that list (PAA can be used for manufacturing methamphetamine).

Unfortunately, it all comes down to money!:(

Have fun experimenting!

Dr. Marco

PS Anyone on the forum is always welcome to PM me with chemistry questions - as long as it pertains to tobacco related issues.
 

SmokeStack

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FmGrowit, in regards to finding out what type of flavor comes from a certain chemical on that list, go to Wikipedia and do a search for "List of additives in cigarettes." You will find a HUGE list with links.
 

Chicken

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and i thought that avatar was some random choosing,,

didnt know it was because your a chemist....

and if paa is involved with making meth,,,,, i guess thats why all the addicts stink???
 

wazzappenning

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phillip morris for the most part shows all their additives

http://www.philipmorrisusa.com/en/c...Ingredients/Ingredients_By_Brand/default.aspx

here are the flavoring products. they dont do it by brand because its a secret. if you can figure out what goes where youll get the cig youre trying to duplicate

http://www.philipmorrisusa.com/en/c...o_Flavor_Ingredients/default.aspx?src=top_nav

pmi international shows more ingredients, but these could taste different.

http://www.pmi.com/eng/our_products/pages/technical_products_information.aspx

canada isnt on the list... some legal stuff had them sell instead of paying fines (i think it was the smuggling in the 90s). anyway we finally got marlboros, and i find them nothing like the ones in the states (i also had some swiss, mexican, and indonesian ones, none were the same). however, a few years back i noticed that even the duty free ones (which were better than the ones stateside) dont taste any good either. i suspect fsc papers for the most part.

on a side note, i was talking to a cook and mentioned that the american cigarette taste had more to do with sugar, cocoa, and licorice than where the tobacco was from. he answered me that burning sugar is pretty toxic.
 

Knucklehead

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Guys go to The Tobacco Seed Company website http://www.thetobaccoseed.com/index.html. On the home page third column click on "impurities" or in fourth column click "additives". They list over 600 ingredients found in commercial chemical sticks. The list will make you very angry. Concerning tobacco in cigarettes in 1960 a cigarette contained 2.2 grams of real leaf tobacco. Today a cigarette contains 0.7 grams of real leaf tobacco. Read the list and you'll know what what that other 1.5 grams is. Yuck.
Wallace
 
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