1400-1500: The early history of snus
On the island of Hispaniola (now Haiti) in the Caribbean, Europeans came into contact with tobacco for the first time. It was in October 1492 when Columbus and his men landed on the island. On the beach, they were received by natives who came with gifts. Among other things, they received some dry leaves that the natives considered very valuable.
The monk Ramon Pane came into contact with his predecessor to snus in 1497, when he accompanied him on Columbus' second voyage to America. He then saw Native American priests pull a powder up their noses through a fork-shaped tube. According to researchers, the powder probably did not only consist of tobacco, but the snus itself became important for tobacco use when it was introduced in Europe.
Spanish and Portuguese sailors brought the tobacco plant to Europe. In the mid-16th century, physicians in Lisbon began using the herb for medicinal purposes. They believed that it could cure syphilis and cancer, among other things. They grew tobacco in their gardens. Jean Nicot
Jean Nicot, French Ambassador to Lisbon and whose name Linnaeus used for the Latin name of the tobacco plant, Nicotiana tabacum, is of great importance for the development of snus use.
In the 1560s, Nicot came in contact with the tobacco plant, which was then grown in the gardens of Lisbon, and became so enthusiastic that he brought some tobacco plants home to Paris. It is said that Nicot, when he found out that the French queen Katarina de Medici was suffering from a chronic headache, advised her to crumble tobacco leaves and pull the powder up her nose. The queen followed the prescription and the headache disappeared. The miracle cure quickly made snus popular in French court circles. 1600-1700: Snus comes to Sweden
As Paris was the model for all European courts, it did not take long before snuff was used in the rest of Europe. The first time snus is mentioned in Sweden is in 1637. In a customs document you can read that snus was brought into Sweden from Porvoo in Finland.
In the 18th century, the use of snuff became a must among the ladies and gentlemen of the aristocracy. A fine 18th century master's equipment included a snuff box. It would be expensive and handled with carefully regulated elegance. The boxes were small masterpieces of gold, silver or other precious materials and quickly became one of the most popular gifts.
The 18th century was the breakthrough of the Swedish tobacco industry. Tobacco was grown in Skåne, Gränna and Alingsås, where the father of the potato, Jonas Alströmer, started growing tobacco on a large scale. At the end of the 18th century, tobacco was grown in about 70 Swedish cities. The fall of the snuff
The French Revolution marked the end of the upper class who used the traditional scent snuff. Under Napoleon, who was a big snus user, snus got a temporary boost, but after his fall it became out of date, perhaps even politically adventurous to stick to snus. The snus went out of fashion and the bourgeoisie, which now came to power, switched to smoking cigars. 1800: New snus habits
In Sweden, the political development coincided with a change in the snus habits themselves. At the beginning of the 19th century, perhaps a little earlier, Swedish consumers switched to putting a prill under their lips. Many farmers who had their own tobacco farm made their own snus. They ground the tobacco in their coffee grinders or hand-carved dirt grinders. 1800-1900: Snus manufacturers
During the 19th century, manufacturers began to produce local varieties of moist snus. Some well-known suppliers were Petter Swartz with Röda Lacket and JA Boman with Generalsnus. The largest brand, however, was Ettan, Ljunglöfs Ettan.
Jacob Fredrik Ljunglöf's factory on Badstugatan, today Sveavägen in Stockholm, has its roots in a tobacco company founded around 1695. Jacob Fredrik Ljunglöf took over the company in 1822 and made it Europe's and the world's leading snus factory.
Virtually all Swedish snus manufacturers in the 19th century had in their range a snus No: 1, No: 2 and No: 3, which denoted different qualities. However, Ljunglöf launched its 1st as a nationwide quality product and succeeded. Ljunglöfs Ettan became a popular concept. Today, it is still one of Sweden's largest brands and accounts for about a fifth of all snus sales in Sweden. America
When just over a million Swedes emigrated across the Atlantic from 1846 until 1930, they brought with them their Swedish customs and usages, including the tradition of snus. Snus use was so common that the main street in the Swedish-American districts was called the snus boulevard by the Americans. Snus became one of the Swedes' identity marks. Monopoly is introduced
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Swedish state needed money for the defense and for the first pension reform. The money would come from the tobacco. After a break of 250 years, a new tobacco monopoly was introduced in 1915. It was exercised by the limited company AB Svenska Tobaksmonopolet.
Snus use increased rapidly and reached a record level in 1919 when 7,000 tonnes of snus were sold. Sweden then had a population of 6 million people, which meant a consumption of 1.2 kg / capita.
In the following years, snus experienced a decline in favor of other tobacco products, especially the increasingly popular cigarettes, which became part of the American trend after World War II. 1970 to today: A success story
Snus began to become more popular again in the late 1960s when the health risks associated with cigarette smoking were highlighted in several reports. In the 1970s, the first portion of snus was introduced, an important step for the snus to reach a wider audience. Since then, the sales curve has pointed upwards.
In 1866, JA Boman's Generalsnus saw the light of day. It was a success that lasted for over 150 years. But who was he really the creator of Generalsnuset, JA Boman?
Johan Adolf Boman was born in 1821 in Strömstad and is the son of Beata Barbara and Johannes Boman. The father is a sea captain and died in 1834 in a ship accident. The family is hard hit and at the age of 21 JA Boman moves to Gothenburg.
In 1851 Johan Adolf married the one year older Gustafva Amanda d´Orchimont in Uddevalla. Gustava Amanda comes from a French noble family and was born in Strömstad. At this time, he is already established as a wholesaler in Gothenburg. Together they have the children Axel, Herman and Gustaf. They have four more children who do not survive to adulthood.
In 1849, Boman became a partnerin the tobacco company Ferd. Körner, formerly owned by the sales clerk Jacob Ferdinand Körner. His title would then be changed to tobacco manufacturer. Körner & Co was originally an import company that traded in coffee and cotton.
1854 the company changes its name to Körner & Boman. In 1857, the company's office was located at Smedjegatan 5 in Gothenburg, so that on April 1 of the same year, they moved to Östra Hamngatan 14, which already housed the factory.
In 1861, Boman took over the company under its own auspices under the name JA Boman & Coand five years later launched Generalsnus, which would prove to be a very popular and long-lasting snus brand. It is said that Boman was obsessed with creating the best snus market the market had ever seen and experienced. General is becoming a bestseller and immensely popular among 19th century snus consumers.
From the end of the 19th century, the focus was entirely on snus and eventually became Gothenburg's third largest snus factory and now Boman's youngest son Gustaf Boman is also included in the company. In addition to General, the company manufactures other popular snus brands such as Götha Vapen, Ögonsnus, Grofsigt and Patent Rapé.
In 1915, the Tobacco Monopoly redeemed the factory together with a large number of other snus factories. However, the General brand remains and is now manufactured under the auspices of the Tobacco Monopoly and remains in the sales range even when the tobacco monopoly ends in 1965.
TOBACCO CULTIVATION IN SWEDEN
Tobacco, like potatoes, tomatoes, aubergines and peppers, belongs to the family Solanaceae and is part of the genus Nicotiana, which has almost 60 different species and has been grown in Sweden since the end of the 16th century. In 1724, King Fredrik Iissued a royaldecreecallingfor tobacco cultivation throughout thecountry. The goal is to make Sweden self-sufficient withinfouryears.
In the middle of the 18th century, more than half of all tobacco used in tobacco production was Swedish-grown and there are cultivations in 72 Swedish and 12 Finnish cities. The work with the tobacco farms is a classic women's work and the knowledge is often inherited from mother to daughter. During the late 19th century, many women traveled to the cities during the summer to find work at one of the larger tobacco farms. A legendarytobaccogrowerisAlida Olsson "Mother Alida"in Yngsjö outside Åhus. Sheproducesher own tobacco variety ofVirginia type which of course is called Alidatobak. In 1964, the last plants are harvested. Seeds from there are today the basis for the museum's own cultivation. To grow tobacco
The tobacco seeds are germinated in a cloth bag in water for a few days and then in sand before being sown in drift benches in early April. Drivbänken have is the straw in the bottom to protect against the cold, then the manure and the top of a layer of compost. Every day , the windows of the drive bench are opened , so that the plants can slowly get used to the cold air. In late May and early June , the plants are planted in the fields.
The fields are prepared for planting through fertilization and a prepared drill , which means that you plow two plow furrows against each other and then level out at the top with a rake. Between each drill there is a 60 cm wide empty groove . On each drill there is a row of plants with 40 cm between each plant. When the plants have grown to about 15 cm, they are cupped . As the plants grow, small shoots emerge . These are removed and the cold s at t "parasitic plants " . The aim is to get as big and beautiful among the ad as possible. Usually thieves to the plants twice, then is the time for the topping , which involves taking away the flower top p farm hands that they should not draw too much nutrition . Only those plants that you save the seed harvest allows you flowers can be retained .
When the tobacco is ripe , it is harvested . You start at the top and break off leaf after leaf . Last ry cker man up the stalk that is thrown away. A small incision is made in the midrib of the tobacco leaf and the cut leaves are cut into long sticks. This is called a timed " k APPA tobacco." When a cane is packed with tobacco leaf placed on top of the joists for drying in a t obakslada. Generally harvested tobacco in a ugust or September.
When the tobacco is finally dry, you take care of it on a foggy day and take it down. In such weather , the tobacco becomes soft and manageable and the work is easier. Leaf after leaf is taken from the stick and folded into a bundle . When the bundle is finished, you tie a string around it and then it's time for delivery to the tobacco manufacturer.
Here you can read more about the Snus and Match Museum's tobacco cultivation.
SWEDEN'S SNUS DYNASTY
At the beginning of the 20th century, Jac Fr Ljunglöfs Tobaksfabrik was the largest snus manufacturer in Sweden. As early as 1822, they began to sell the snus brand, Ljunglöfs No 1, which for 19th century snus consumers would become synonymous with "snus". We know that Jacob Fredrik was a manufacturer who improved the production methods, reviewed the distribution and introduced fixed prices and a quality guarantee on his snus. But how did it all really start? Jacob Fredrik Ljunglöf was born in Södermanland in 1796 and is the son of a priest. Only 14 years old, he comes to Stockholm alone and initially gets a job as a clerk at a sugar factory.
In 1813 he started working for Petter Helin who is a restaurateur at Claes on Hörnet on Roslagsgatan and also a tobacco manufacturer. Here, the young Jacob Fredrik gets to learn everything that a future tobacco manufacturer must be able to do. Seven years later, he gets a job as foreman and factory manager at the tobacco manufacturer Petter Lundgren-Andersson, who has his factory on Drottninggatan 8.
In 1821, the company was transferred due to illness to Jacob Fredrik, who is now 25 years old. The company now specializes in snuff manufacturing. Jacob Fredrik improves production methods, reviews distribution, introduces fixed prices and quality guarantees. This is something completely new in the snus manufacturing industry at this time when, above all, the quality of snus was a secondary problem for many snus manufacturers. On this occasion, the company also changes its name to Jac Fr Ljunglöfs Tobaksfabrik.
In 1822, Ljunglöfs No 1 is launched, a common term for the highest quality a factory delivered. Jacob Fredrik Ljunglöf succeeds in making the general quality designation No. 1 his own brand, popularly called "Ettan". He has a huge success with his snus and becomes the country's only snus manufacturer with nationwide sales. In 1833, his son Knut was born in the apartment on top of the factory on Drottninggatan. It is Knut who will be the Dirty King with the whole of Sweden. As snus production had multiplied in 1839, the factory moved to the old brewery quarters along Badstugatan (Sveavägen 40-44). In addition to the tobacco factory, it also houses offices and the Ljunglöf home.
The railway creates endless opportunities to sell snus all over the country and everywhere you can see Ljunglöf's snus in the local tobacco shops. The large number of Swedes who emigrate to America also creates a demand in the New Land and after solving the difficult problem of how to pack the snus so that it would last the entire journey, they start exporting to the new continent. Ljunglöf's No 1 spreads all the way down to the Vatican where Pope LEO XIII is very fond of Ettan.
Most of the growing profit from snus production is invested in large land estates and in 1893 the large villa in Blackeberg was completed. The new villa is closest to a castle surrounded by a vast park with rare trees. The cream is invited here by Stockholm's society and merchants' houses. The royal family are also regular guests. Blackeberg was considered a miniature Drottningholm.
Knut marries twice. The second marriage is to Hulda, a widow of a young officer. Hulda and Knut have a son together - Robert Ljunglöf.
Knut is punctually personified and every morning at the same time he tastes his snus. Every day, Ljunglöf also monitors the snus factory. At certain times, he personally appears on the sweat rooms and checks that the heat maintains a certain temperature.
The employees at Ljunglöfs Tobaksfabrik have work and income secured for old age and a decent pension thereafter. At the end of the working day, each worker receives an ostrich with one large enough to suffice for the whole family.
Every week, the old people in the city's poorhouse can pick up snus in their own cans at the factory. However, this is being derailed as the queue of poor people becomes longer and the doses they carry increase. In the end, Ljunglöf decides to instead deliver free snus in quarters directly to the poorhouses. 1885 Robert, son of Knut, is born. Father and son run the companies together for a number of years. When the tobacco monopoly was formed in 1915, Knut Ljunglöf gave up and handed over the responsibility to Robert, who had to handle the state's redemption of snus production. Robert becomes a very wealthy man with the redemption of the company and the sale of the large country estates to the city of Stockholm. Inspired by his friend Ivar Kreuger, much of the capital is invested in chemistry, the pharmaceutical industry and insurance companies. The snus factory is demolished and on the site at Sveavägen 44 an office complex is built for his insurance company Thule, later Skandia.
I would suggest combining the two SNUS history threads that you've created into a single thread. It is way too much material for me to have read all of it yet. If there is any duplication of posts between the two threads, let me know. Then I will combine them into the original thread.